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|Title:||Impacts of rising temperatures and water acidification on the oxidative status and immune system of aquatic ectothermic vertebrates: A meta-analysis||Authors:||Messina, Simone
|Journal:||SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT||Issue Date:||2023||Abstract:||
Species persistence in the Anthropocene is dramatically threatened by global climate change. Large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from human activities are driving increases in mean temperature, intensity of heatwaves, and acidification of oceans and freshwater bodies. Ectotherms are particularly sensitive to CO2-induced stressors, because the rate of their metabolic reactions, as well as their immunological performance, are affected by environmental temperatures and water pH. We reviewed and performed a meta-analysis of 56 studies, involving 1259 effect sizes, that compared oxidative status or immune function metrics between 42 species of ectothermic vertebrates exposed to long-term increased temperatures or water acidification (≥48 h), and those exposed to control parameters resembling natural conditions. We found that CO2-induced stressors enhance levels of molecular oxidative damages in ectotherms, while the activity of antioxidant enzymes was upregulated only at higher temperatures, possibly due to an increased rate of biochemical reactions dependent on the higher ambient temperature. Differently, both temperature and water acidification showed weak impacts on immune function, indicating different direction (increase or decrease) of responses among immune traits. Further, we found that the intensity of temperature treatments (Δ°C) and their duration, enhance the physiological response of ectotherms, pointing to stronger effects of prolonged extreme warming events (i.e., heatwaves) on the oxidative status. Finally, adult individuals showed weaker antioxidant enzymatic responses to an increase in water temperature compared to early life stages, suggesting lower acclimation capacity. Antarctic species showed weaker antioxidant response compared to temperate and tropical species, but level of uncertainty in the antioxidant enzymatic response of Antarctic species was high, thus pairwise comparisons were statistically non-significant. Overall, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that the regulation of oxidative status might be one key mechanism underlying thermal plasticity in aquatic ectothermic vertebrates.
|Appears in Collections:||A1. Articolo in rivista|
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