Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2067/47800
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dc.contributor.authorHeiskanen, Jouniit
dc.contributor.authorBrummer, Christianit
dc.contributor.authorBuchmann, Ninait
dc.contributor.authorCalfapietra, Carloit
dc.contributor.authorChen, Huilinit
dc.contributor.authorGielen, Bertit
dc.contributor.authorGkritzalis, Thanosit
dc.contributor.authorHammer, Samuelit
dc.contributor.authorHartman, Susanit
dc.contributor.authorHerbst, Mathiasit
dc.contributor.authorJanssens, Ivan A.it
dc.contributor.authorJordan, Arminit
dc.contributor.authorJuurola, Eijait
dc.contributor.authorKarstens, Uteit
dc.contributor.authorKasurinen, Villeit
dc.contributor.authorKruijt, Bartit
dc.contributor.authorLankreijer, Harryit
dc.contributor.authorLevin, Ingeborgit
dc.contributor.authorLinderson, Maj Lenait
dc.contributor.authorLoustau, Denisit
dc.contributor.authorMerbold, Lutzit
dc.contributor.authorMyhre, Cathrine Lundit
dc.contributor.authorPapale, Darioit
dc.contributor.authorPavelka, Marianit
dc.contributor.authorPilegaard, Kimit
dc.contributor.authorRamonet, Michelit
dc.contributor.authorRebmann, Corinnait
dc.contributor.authorRinne, Janneit
dc.contributor.authorRivier, Léonardit
dc.contributor.authorSaltikoff, Elenait
dc.contributor.authorSanders, Richardit
dc.contributor.authorSteinbacher, Martinit
dc.contributor.authorSteinhoff, Tobiasit
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Andrewit
dc.contributor.authorVermeulen, Alex T.it
dc.contributor.authorVesala, Timoit
dc.contributor.authorVítkova, Gabrielait
dc.contributor.authorKutsch, Wernerit
dc.date.accessioned2022-05-21T13:01:33Z-
dc.date.available2022-05-21T13:01:33Z-
dc.date.issued2022it
dc.identifier.issn1520-0477it
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2067/47800-
dc.description.abstractSince 1750, land-use change and fossil fuel combustion has led to a 46% increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, causing global warming with substantial societal consequences. The Paris Agreement aims to limit global temperature increases to well below 2C above preindustrial levels. Increasing levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), in the atmosphere are the primary cause of climate change. Approximately half of the carbon emissions to the atmosphere are sequestered by ocean and land sinks, leading to ocean acidification but also slowing the rate of global warming. However, there are significant uncertainties in the future global warming scenarios due to uncertainties in the size, nature, and stability of these sinks. Quantifying and monitoring the size and timing of natural sinks and the impact of climate change on ecosystems are important information to guide policy-makers' decisions and strategies on reductions in emissions. Continuous, long-term observations are required to quantify GHG emissions, sinks, and their impacts on Earth systems. The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) was designed as the European in situ observation and information system to support science and society in their efforts to mitigate climate change. It provides standardized and open data currently from over 140 measurement stations across 12 European countries. The stations observe GHG concentrations in the atmosphere and carbon and GHG fluxes between the atmosphere, land surface, and the oceans. This article describes how ICOS fulfills its mission to harmonize these observations, ensure the related long-term financial commitments, provide easy access to well-documented and reproducible high-quality data and related protocols and tools for scientific studies, and deliver information and GHG-related products to stakeholders in society and policy.it
dc.format.mediumELETTRONICOit
dc.language.isoengit
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.titleThe Integrated Carbon Observation System in Europeit
dc.typearticle*
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0364.1it
dc.identifier.scopus2-s2.0-85119510369it
dc.relation.journalBULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETYit
dc.relation.firstpageE855it
dc.relation.lastpageE872it
dc.relation.volume103it
dc.relation.issue3it
dc.description.internationalit
dc.type.refereeREF_1it
dc.type.miur262*
item.grantfulltextrestricted-
item.openairecristypehttp://purl.org/coar/resource_type/c_18cf-
item.languageiso639-1en-
item.fulltextWith Fulltext-
item.openairetypearticle-
item.cerifentitytypePublications-
crisitem.journal.journalissn1520-0477-
crisitem.journal.anceE229339-
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