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Title: The impact of weather and slope conditions on the productivity, cost, and ghg emissions of a ground-based harvesting operation in mountain hardwoods
Authors: Ezzati, Sättar
Tavankar, Farzam
Ghaffariyan, Mohammad Reza
Venanzi, Rachele 
Latterini, Francesco
Picchio, Rodolfo 
Journal: FORESTS 
Issue Date: 2021
Mountainous hardwood mixed stands offer challenges to timber harvesting operations in practice, including a harsh climate, variable topography, steep terrain, and large-sized timbers. This paper aims to develop productivity and cost models for a mountain-ground-based harvesting operation across the terrain (e.g., slope conditions), stand (e.g., tree volume) environmental (e.g., weather), and yard (e.g., winching distance) variables and to assess GHG emissions related to the equipment in use. This development was implemented in a timber harvesting practice under single-tree selection in mountainous forests of Iran where a motor-manual chainsaw is used for felling and a rubber-tired cable skidder is used for log extraction. The average delay-free productivity was 4.55 m3 for felling and 14.73 m3 h−1 for skidding. Lower production costs and higher productivity rates were observed over the gentle slopes and in sunny conditions. The average production costs ranged between USD 4.27 m−3 for felling and USD 5.35 m−3 for skidding. The average emissions ranged between 0.96 kg m−3 for felling and 7.06 kg m−3 for skidding in snowy conditions over steep slopes. The study’s results confirm avoiding harvesting operations on steep slopes (greater than 35%) and in extreme weather conditions to obtain higher work efficiency and to minimize adverse effects of machinery on forest ecosystems. The results should be of use to harvest managers and forest planners considering the application of ground-based harvesting operations using a semi-mechanized system on a range of operating conditions in mountain hardwood stands.
ISSN: 1999-4907
DOI: 10.3390/f12121612
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Appears in Collections:A1. Articolo in rivista

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