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Title: 5S-IGS rDNA in wind-pollinated trees (Fagus L.) encapsulates 55 million years of reticulate evolution and hybrid origins of modern species
Authors: Cardoni, Simone
Piredda, Roberta
Denk, Thomas
Grimm, Guido W
Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C
Schulze, Ernst-Detlef
Scoppola, Anna 
Salehi Shanjani, Parvin
Suyama, Yoshihisa
Tomaru, Nobuhiro
Worth, James R P
Simeone, Marco Cosimo 
Issue Date: 2022
Standard models of plant speciation assume strictly dichotomous genealogies in which a species, the ancestor, is replaced by two offspring species. The reality in wind-pollinated trees with long evolutionary histories is more complex: species evolve from other species through isolation when genetic drift exceeds gene flow; lineage mixing can give rise to new species (hybrid taxa such as nothospecies and allopolyploids). The multi-copy, potentially multi-locus 5S rDNA is one of few gene regions conserving signal from dichotomous and reticulate evolutionary processes down to the level of intra-genomic recombination. Therefore, it can provide unique insights into the dynamic speciation processes of lineages that diversified tens of millions of years ago. Here, we provide the first high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 5S intergenic spacers (5S-IGS) for a lineage of wind-pollinated subtropical to temperate trees, the Fagus crenata - F. sylvatica s.l. lineage, and its distant relative F. japonica. The observed 4963 unique 5S-IGS variants reflect a complex history of hybrid origins, lineage sorting, mixing via secondary gene flow, and intra-genomic competition between two or more paralogous-homoeologous 5S rDNA lineages. We show that modern species are genetic mosaics and represent a striking case of ongoing reticulate evolution during the past 55 million years.
ISSN: 0960-7412
DOI: 10.1111/tpj.15601
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Appears in Collections:A1. Articolo in rivista

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