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Title: Valorization of winery and distillery by-products by hydrothermal carbonization
Authors: Barbanera, Marco 
Cardarelli, Alessandro
Carota, Eleonora
Castellini, Marco
Giannoni, Tommaso
Ubertini, Stefano 
Issue Date: 2021
This work aims at finding an alternative strategy to manage the waste generated by the winemaking industry to obtain a solid biofuel and phenolic compounds. The effect of temperature (180-260 °C), residence time (1-7 h), and biomass-to-liquid ratio (0.05-0.25) on the co-hydrothermal carbonization of vine pruning and exhausted grape pomace, by using vinasse as moisture source, is studied. The effect of the variables is investigated and optimized using the Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology to maximize mass yield, fuel ratio, energy densification yield and phenols extraction yield and to minimize energy consumption. The statistical analysis shows that the carbonization temperature is a crucial parameter of the process, decreasing the product yield on one hand and improving the quality of hydrochar on the other. At the optimal conditions (246.3 °C, 1.6 h, 0.066), an hydrochar yield of 52.64% and a calorific value of 24.1 MJ/kg were obtained. Moreover, the analysis of the H/C and O/C ratios of hydrochars demonstrates that carbonisation significantly improves the fuel properties of solid biofuel. Liquid by-products obtained from the HTC process are found to contain high concentrations of organic matter but the BOD/COD ratios suggest their potential valorization by biological methods.
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-03501-7
Appears in Collections:A1. Articolo in rivista

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