Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2067/46811
Title: Liquid and Vapor Phase of Four Conifer-Derived Essential Oils: Comparison of Chemical Compositions and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties
Authors: Garzoli, Stefania
Masci, Valentina Laghezza
Caradonna, Valentina
Tiezzi, Antonio 
Giacomello, Pierluigi
Elisa Ovidi 
Journal: PHARMACEUTICALS 
Issue Date: 2021
Abstract: 
In this study, the chemical composition of the vapor and liquid phase of Pinus cembra L., Pinus mugo Turra, Picea abies L., and Abies Alba M. needles essential oils (EOs) was investigated by Headspace-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS). In the examined EOs, a total of twenty-eight components were identified, most of which belong to the monoterpenes family. α-Pinene (16.6-44.0%), β-pinene (7.5-44.7%), limonene (9.5-32.5%), and γ-terpinene (0.3-19.7%) were the most abundant components of the liquid phase. Such major compounds were also detected in the vapor phase of all EOs, and α-pinene reached higher relative percentages than in the liquid phase. Then, both the liquid and vapor phases were evaluated in terms of antibacterial activity against three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Acinetobacter bohemicus) and two Gram-positive bacteria (Kocuria marina and Bacillus cereus) using a microwell dilution assay, disc diffusion assay, and vapor phase test. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (13.28 mg/mL) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) (26.56 mg/mL) values, which correspond to the highest antibacterial activities, were reported for P. abies EO against A. bohemicus and for A. alba EO against A. bohemicus and B. cereus. The vapor phase of all the tested EOs was more active than liquid phase, showing the inhibition halos from 41.00 ± 10.15 mm to 80.00 ± 0.00 mm for three bacterial strains (A. bohemicus, K. marina, and B. cereus). Furthermore, antioxidant activities were also investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assays, and a concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity for all EOs was found. P. mugo EO showed the best antioxidant activity than the other Pinaceae EOs. The four Pinaceae EOs could be further investigated for their promising antibacterial and antioxidant properties, and, in particular, α-pinene seems to have interesting possibilities for use as a novel natural antibacterial agent.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2067/46811
ISSN: 1424-8247
DOI: 10.3390/ph14020134
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Appears in Collections:A1. Articolo in rivista

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