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Title: Wheat ATIs: Characteristics and Role in Human Disease
Authors: Geisslitz, Sabrina
Shewry, Peter
Brouns, Fred
America, Antoine H. P.
Caio, Giacomo Pietro Ismaele
Daly, Matthew
D'Amico, Stefano
De Giorgio, Roberto
Gilissen, Luud
Grausgruber, Heinrich
Huang, Xin
Jonkers, Daisy
Keszthelyi, Daniel
Larré, Colette
Masci, Stefania 
Mills, Clare
Møller, Marie Sofie
Sorrells, Mark E.
Svensson, Birte
Zevallos, Victor F.
Weegels, Peter Louis
Issue Date: 2021
Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (ATIs) comprise about 2–4% of the total wheat grain proteins
and may contribute to natural defense against pests and pathogens. However, they are
currently among the most widely studied wheat components because of their proposed
role in adverse reactions to wheat consumption in humans. ATIs have long been known
to contribute to IgE-mediated allergy (notably Bakers’ asthma), but interest has increased
since 2012 when they were shown to be able to trigger the innate immune system, with
attention focused on their role in coeliac disease which affects about 1%of the population
and, more recently, in non-coeliac wheat sensitivity which may affect up to 10% of
the population. This has led to studies of their structure, inhibitory properties, genetics,
control of expression, behavior during processing, effects on human adverse reactions
to wheat and, most recently, strategies to modify their expression in the plant using gene
editing. We therefore present an integrated account of this range of research, identifying
inconsistencies, and gaps in our knowledge and identifying future research needs
ISSN: 2296-861X
DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2021.667370
Rights: CC0 1.0 Universal
Appears in Collections:A1. Articolo in rivista

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