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Title: Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)
Authors: Klionsky, Daniel J.
Abdel-Aziz, Amal Kamal
Abdelfatah, Sara
Abdellatif, Mahmoud
Abdoli, Asghar
Abel, Steffen
Abeliovich, Hagai
Abildgaard, Marie H.
Abudu, Yakubu Princely
Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham
Adamopoulos, Iannis E.
Adeli, Khosrow
Adolph, Timon E.
Adornetto, Annagrazia
Aflaki, Elma
Agam, Galila
Agarwal, Anupam
Aggarwal, Bharat B.
Agnello, Maria
Agostinis, Patrizia
Agrewala, Javed N.
Agrotis, Alexander
Aguilar, Patricia V.
Ahmad, S. Tariq
Ahmed, Zubair M.
Ahumada-Castro, Ulises
Aits, Sonja
Aizawa, Shu
Akkoc, Yunus
Akoumianaki, Tonia
Akpinar, Hafize Aysin
Al-Abd, Ahmed M.
Al-Akra, Lina
Al-Gharaibeh, Abeer
Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.
Alberti, Simon
Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet
Alessandri, Cristiano
Ali, Muhammad
Alim Al-Bari, M. Abdul
Aliwaini, Saeb
Alizadeh, Javad
Almacellas, Eugènia
Almasan, Alexandru
Alonso, Alicia
Alonso, Guillermo D.
Altan-Bonnet, Nihal
Altieri, Dario C.
Álvarez, Élida M.C.
Alves, Sara
Alves da Costa, Cristine
Alzaharna, Mazen M.
Amadio, Marialaura
Amantini, Consuelo
Amaral, Cristina
Ambrosio, Susanna
Amer, Amal O.
Ammanathan, Veena
An, Zhenyi
Andersen, Stig U.
Andrabi, Shaida A.
Andrade-Silva, Magaiver
Andres, Allen M.
Angelini, Sabrina
Ann, David
Anozie, Uche C.
Ansari, Mohammad Y.
Antas, Pedro
Antebi, Adam
Antón, Zuriñe
Anwar, Tahira
Apetoh, Lionel
Apostolova, Nadezda
Araki, Toshiyuki
Araki, Yasuhiro
Arasaki, Kohei
Araújo, Wagner L.
Araya, Jun
Arden, Catherine
Arévalo, Maria Angeles
Arguelles, Sandro
Arias, Esperanza
Arikkath, Jyothi
Arimoto, Hirokazu
Ariosa, Aileen R.
Armstrong-James, Darius
Arnauné-Pelloquin, Laetitia
Aroca, Angeles
Arroyo, Daniela S.
Arsov, Ivica
Artero, Rubén
Asaro, Dalia Maria Lucia
Aschner, Michael
Ashrafizadeh, Milad
Ashur-Fabian, Osnat
Atanasov, Atanas G.
Au, Alicia K.
Auberger, Patrick
Auner, Holger W.
Aurelian, Laure
Velotti, Francesca Romana 
Issue Date: 2021
In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
ISSN: 1554-8627
DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
Rights: CC0 1.0 Universal
Appears in Collections:A1. Articolo in rivista

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