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|Titolo:||The fungal community associated with the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus invading the mediterranean maquis in central Italy reveals high biodiversity and suggests environmental acquisitions||Autori:||Sferrazza, Ivano
Aleandri, Maria Pia
Dalla Valle, Matteo
|Rivista:||FUNGAL BIOLOGY||Parole chiave:||beetle; biodiversity; community structure; environmental conditions; fungus; host plant; introduced species; mutualism; pathogen; saprotrophy; shrub; woody plant, Circeo National Park; Italy; Latina; Lazio, Ambrosia; Ambrosiella xylebori; Ceratonia siliqua; Coleoptera; Fusarium; Fusarium solani complex; Hexapoda; Laurus nobilis; Platypodini; Quercus ilex; Xylosandrus compactus, adult; ambrosia beetle; article; biodiversity; carob; female; fungal community; Fusarium solani; habitat; high throughput sequencing; human; human experiment; Italy; Laurus nobilis; male; nonhuman; phytopathogen; Quercus ilex; saprotroph; seasonal variation||Data pubblicazione:||2021||Editore:||Elsevier B.V.||Abstract:||
In summer 2016 a severe infestation of the alien ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus was recorded from the Mediterranean maquis in the Circeo National Park in Central Italy. Trees and shrubs were infested and displayed wilting and necrosis of terminal branches caused by the combined impact of the insect and associated pathogenic fungi. A preliminary screening carried out on captured adults resulted in the isolation of a discrete number of fungal taxa with different life strategies, ranging from true mutualist (e.g. Ambrosiella xylebori) to plant pathogens (Fusarium spp.). In the present study, high-throughput sequencing was applied to determine the total diversity and functionality of the fungal community associated with X. compactus adults collected in the galleries of three Mediterranean woody hosts, Quercus ilex, Laurus nobilis, and Ceratonia siliqua. The effect of season and host in determining the composition of the associated fungal community was investigated. A total of 206 OTUs composed the fungal community associated with X. compactus. Eighteen OTUs were shared among the three hosts, including A. xylebori and members of the Fusarium solani complex. All but two were previously associated with beetles. Sixty-nine out of 206 OTUs were resolved to species level, identifying 60 different fungal species, 22 of which already reported in the literature as associated with beetles or other insects. Functional guild assigned most of the fungal species to saprotrophs and plant pathogens. Effects of seasonality and host on fungal community assemblage were highlighted suggesting the acquisition by the insect of new fungal taxa during the invasion process. The consequences of enriched fungal community on the risk of the insurgence of novel threatful insect-fungus association are discussed considering direct and indirect effects on the invaded habitat.
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