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|Titolo:||Green production and biotechnological applications of cellwall lytic enzymes||Autori:||Benedetti, Manuel
Savatin, Daniel V.
|Rivista:||APPLIED SCIENCES||Data pubblicazione:||2019||Abstract:||
© 2019 by the authors. Energy demand is constantly growing, and, nowadays, fossil fuels still play a dominant role in global energy production, despite their negative effects on air pollution and the emission of greenhouse gases, which are the main contributors to global warming. An alternative clean source of energy is represented by the lignocellulose fraction of plant cell walls, the most abundant carbon source on Earth. To obtain biofuels, lignocellulose must be efficiently converted into fermentable sugars. In this regard, the exploitation of cell wall lytic enzymes (CWLEs) produced by lignocellulolytic fungi and bacteria may be considered as an eco-friendly alternative. These organisms evolved to produce a variety of highly specific CWLEs, even if in low amounts. For an industrial use, both the identification of novel CWLEs and the optimization of sustainable CWLE-expressing biofactories are crucial. In this review, we focus on recently reported advances in the heterologous expression of CWLEs from microbial and plant expression systems as well as some of their industrial applications, including the production of biofuels from agricultural feedstock and of value-added compounds from waste materials. Moreover, since heterologous expression of CWLEs may be toxic to plant hosts, genetic strategies aimed in converting such a deleterious effect into a beneficial trait are discussed.
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