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Title: Zebrafish as a translational regeneration model to study the activation of neural stem cells and role of their environment
Authors: Ceci, Marcello 
Mariano, Vittoria
Romano, Nicla 
Issue Date: 2019
The review is an overview of the current knowledge of neuronal regeneration properties in mammals and fish. The ability to regenerate the damaged parts of the nervous tissue has been demonstrated in all vertebrates. Notably, fish and amphibians have the highest capacity for neurogenesis, whereas reptiles and birds are able to only regenerate specific regions of the brain, while mammals have reduced capacity for neurogenesis. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a promising model of study because lesions in the brain or complete cross-section of the spinal cord are followed by an effective neuro-regeneration that successfully restores the motor function. In the brain and the spinal cord of zebrafish, stem cell activity is always able to re-activate the molecular programs required for central nervous system regeneration. In mammals, traumatic brain injuries are followed by reduced neurogenesis and poor axonal regeneration, often insufficient to functionally restore the nervous tissue, while spinal injuries are not repaired at all. The environment that surrounds the stem cell niche constituted by connective tissue and stimulating factors, including pro-inflammation molecules, seems to be a determinant in triggering stem cell proliferation and/or the trans-differentiation of connective elements (mainly fibroblasts). Investigating and comparing the neuronal regeneration in zebrafish and mammals may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind neurogenesis, and the failure of the regenerative response in mammals, first of all, the role of inflammation, considered the main inhibitor of neuronal regeneration.
ISSN: 2191-0200
DOI: 10.1515/revneuro-2018-0020
Appears in Collections:A1. Articolo in rivista

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