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|Titolo:||Characterization of black patina from the Tiber River embankments using next-generation sequencing||Autori:||Antonelli F
|Rivista:||PLOS ONE||Data pubblicazione:||2020||Abstract:||
Black patinas are very common biological deterioration phenomena on lapideous artworks in outdoor environments. These substrates, exposed to sunlight, and atmospheric and environmental agents (i.e. wind and temperature changes), represent extreme environments that can only be colonized by highly versatile and adaptable microorganisms. Black patinas comprise a wide variety of microorganisms, but the morphological plasticity of most of these microorganisms hinders their identification by optical microscopy. This study used Next- Generation Sequencing (NGS) (including shotgun and amplicon sequencing) to characterize the black patina of the travertine embankments (muraglioni) of the Tiber River in Rome (Italy). Overall, the sequencing highlighted the rich diversity of bacterial and fungal communities and allowed the identification of more than one hundred taxa. NGS confirmed the relevance of coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria observed by optical microscopy and revealed an informative landscape of the fungal community underlining the presence of microcolonial fungi and phylloplane yeasts. For the first time high-throughput sequencing allowed the exploration of the expansive diversity of bacteria in black patina, which has so far been overlooked in routine analyses. Furthermore, the identification of euendolithic microorganisms and weathering agents underlines the biodegradative role of black patina, which has often been underestimated. Therefore, the use of NGS to characterize black patinas could be useful in choosing appropriate conservation treatments and in the monitoring of stone colonization after the restoration interventions. © 2020 Antonelli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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