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Title: Olea
Authors: Rugini, Eddo
De Pace, Ciro
Gutiérrez-Pesce, Patricia
Muleo, Rosario
Keywords: Olive;Wild olive;Biodiversity;Gene pool;Genetic improvement;Olivo;Olivo selvatico;Biodiversità;Miglioramento genetico
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Springer
Source: Rugini, E. et al. 2011. Olea. In: Kole, C. (ed.). Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources. Temperate fruits. Berlin, Springer, pp. 79-117
The genus Olea contains about 30 species were grouped into three subgenera, Tetrapilus, Paniculatae, and Olea (cultivated olive and wild relatives), found in Asia, Australia and Asia, Africa and Europe, respectively. The species O. europaea L. includes six subspecies: Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea (the Mediterranean olives); O. e. laperrinei (distributed in Saharan massifs of Hoggar, Aïr, Jebel Marra in Algeria); O. e. cuspidata (which moved from South Africa to Egypt, East Australian areas and Hawaii, and from Arabia to northern India and Southwest China); O. e. guanchica (Canary Islands); O. e. maroccana (southwestern Morocco); and O. e. cerasiformis (Madeira).
Using molecular markers, it has been ascertained that the Mediterranean olives include the cultivated types (O. europaea L. ssp. europaea var. sativa), the true wild oleaster (O. e. e. var. sylvestris), and the feral form olevaster from seedlings raised from seeds of the cultivated types. The oleaster has a narrow range of distribution and it is often mistaken for olevaster. Recolonization of the Mediterranean basin by Oleaster occurred after the last glacial event, from refuges located in both eastern and western Mediterranean basin areas toward southern Europe. Oleaster is a source of rootstock for propagating new improved cultivated varieties. Cultivated and wild forms have the same diploid chromosome number (2n = 46) and are fully interfertile. Triploid and tetraploid genotypes have been isolated from cultivated O.e.e., but polyploid forms have been found in endangered natural populations of O. e. guancica (tetraploid) and O. e. maroccana (hexaploid).
Individual oleaster trees showing superior performance for size and/or oil content of fruit were selected empirically during olive domestication and propagated vegetatively as clones using cuttings that were planted directly or, more recently, grafted onto indigenous oleasters.
Genetic markers linked for most important agronomic traits, such as size of the tree, content of secondary products of fruit, flowering induction, oil quality, and biotic and abiotic resistance, will help introgression by conventional breeding of oleaster trait-enhancing genes into cultivated olive. Successful results were difficult to achieve due to both the complex genetic basis of the traits to be improved and the long juvenile period of the progenies that delays the expression of the target traits. In vitro techniques to regenerate doubled haploids from hybrids or somaclonal variation induction may complement classical breeding procedures. Genetic transformation could speed up the development of new genotypes, and transgenic olive plants with modified growth habit and putative induced disease resistance are being tested under filed conditions. However, the development of an efficient regeneration method from mature tissue is the limiting factor for the routine application of this technology to olive genetic improvement.
La pubblicazione originale è disponibile sul sito dell'editore
ISBN: 978-3-642-16056-1
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-16057-8_5
Appears in Collections:DIPROV - Archivio della produzione scientifica

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