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Title: Large-Scale Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Domestic Goat Reveals Six Haplogroups with High Diversity
Authors: Naderi, Saeid
Rezaei, Hamid-Reza
Taberlet, Pierre
Zundel, Stéphanie
Rafat, Seyed-Abbas
Naghash, Hamid-Reza
El- Barody, Mohamed A. A.
Ertugrul, Okan
Pompanon, François
Abo-Shehada, Mahamoud
Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo
Al Tarrayrah, Jamil
Baret, Philippe
Baumung, Roswitha
Beja-Pereira, Albano
Bertaglia, Marco
Bordonaro, Salvatore
Bruford, Mike
Caloz, Régis
Canali, Gabriele
Canon, Javier
Cappuccio, Irene
Carta, Antonello
Cicogna, Mario
Cortes, Oscar
Crepaldi, Paola
Dalamitra, Stella
Daniela, Krugmann
Dobi, Petrit
Dominik, Popielarczyk
Dunner, Susana
D'Urso, Giuseppe
England, Phillip
Erhardt, Georg
Prinzenberg, Eva-Maria
Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline
Strzelec, Ewa
Fadlaoui, Aziz
Fornarelli, Francesca
Garcia, David
Georgoudis, Andreas
Lühken, Gesine
Giovenzana, Stefano
Gutscher, Katja
Hewitt, Godfrey
Hoda, Anila
Brandt, Horst
Istvan, Anton
Juma, Gabriela
Joost, Stéphane
Jones, Sam
Karetsou, Katerina
Kliambas, Georgios
Koban, Evren
Kutita, Olga
Fesus, Lazlo
Lenstra, Johannes A.
Ligda, Christina
Lipsky, Shirin
Luikart, Gordon
Glowatzki, Marie-Louise
Marilli, Marta
Marletta, Donata
Milanesi, Elisabetta
Negrini, Riccardo
Nijman, Isaäc J.
Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela
Papachristoforou, Christos
Pariset, Lorraine
Pellecchia, Marco
Peter, Christina
Perez, Trinidad
Pilla, Fabio
D'Andrea, Mariasilvia
Niznikowski, Roman
Roosen, Jutta
Scarpa, Riccardo
Sechi, Tiziana
Taylor, Martin
Togan, Inci
Trommetter, Michel
Valentini, Alessio
Van Cann, Lisette M.
Vlaic, Augustin
Wiskin, Louise
Zundel, Stéphanie
Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA;DNA mitocondriale;Domestic Goat;Capra domestica
Issue Date: 14-Apr-2011
From the beginning of domestication, the transportation of domestic animals resulted in genetic and demographic processes that explain their present distribution and genetic structure. Thus studying the present genetic diversity helps to better understand the history of domestic species. Methodology/Principal Findings. The genetic diversity of domestic goats has been characterized with 2430 individuals from all over the old world, including 946 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now (mainly the Fertile Crescent). These individuals represented 1540 haplotypes for the HV segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. This large-scale study allowed the establishment of a clear
nomenclature of the goat maternal haplogroups. Only five of the six previously defined groups of haplotypes were divergent
enough to be considered as different haplogroups. Moreover a new mitochondrial group has been localized around the Fertile
Crescent. All groups showed very high haplotype diversity. Most of this diversity was distributed among groups and within
geographic regions. The weak geographic structure may result from the worldwide distribution of the dominant A haplogroup
(more than 90% of the individuals). The large-scale distribution of other haplogroups (except one), may be related to human
migration. The recent fragmentation of local goat populations into discrete breeds is not detectable with mitochondrial markers. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that all groups had a recent demographic expansion corresponding roughly to the period when domestication took place. But even with a large data set it
remains difficult to give relative dates of expansion for different haplogroups because of large confidence intervals
Conclusions/Significance. We propose standard criteria for the definition of the different haplogroups based on the result of mismatch analysis and on the use of sequences of reference. Such a method could be also applied for clarifying the nomenclature of mitochondrial haplogroups in other domestic species.
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